DNA testing and criminal investigations

Clinical investigations done through DNA testing or genetic testing can solve multiple investigative cases that have been put in cold storage because of the leads going cold. Criminal investigations have become easier because DNA testing has paved the way for fair investigation and accurate identification of criminal, ensuring that the criminal justice system provides justice to all equally.

The following ways ensure how DNA testing helps criminal investigation in crime scenes.

Narrowing on the suspect:

In the many cases, the scene of crime can be misleading, i.e. a murder scene could be portrayed as a break and entering gone wrong. In these cases, the DNA testing of any suspicious body parts such as hair which the victim has pulled to run away from the criminal, skin which the victim has peeled out during the struggle or even blood when the survivor has injured the criminal in defence. A simple DNA test can identify the criminal and if he already has a crime sheet, then it is easy for the investigating officers to put him under radar and order his arrest.

Identifying the victim:

A survivor, who has just been taken into the hospital from a crime scene but has no identity on him, can be easily identified through DNA testing. Even if the victim is not from the same country, his medical history such as disorders or any specific disease such as diabeties can be found through DNA testing. It will help the emergency doctor operate the patient with care and set up the necessary medical treatment based on the patient’s medical history.

Ruling out suspects:

DNA tests help the officers narrow down on their suspect through the process of elimination. Any crime scene will have a possible list of suspects. For example, a 32-year old man’s murder investigation could lead to suspects such as his wife, colleague, family member, rival, scorned girl friend or even loan sharks. The only way to identify the criminal is to rule out the suspects. DNA testing of all the suspects will enable the officers to rule out those, whose DNA does not match with the evidence found at the crime scene. This allows the investigating officers do justice to their jobs. In addition, it also ensures that an innocent person is not mistaken as the criminal, which would be the greatest injustice and defeat the purpose of criminal investigations.

DNA Evidence:

In the courtroom, criminal cases need hard evidence so that no innocent person is punished by mistake. Submitting the DNA test of the criminal is treated as proof enough to convict him. For example, a serial rapist would has been careless would have left enough evidence on his victims. If his DNA is matched with the many of the women he has raped, then it is shown as evidence to seal his conviction. Similarly, if a hard core murderer leaves his DNA behind at the crime scene, then it is enough to get a warrant against him and put the whole department into action to capture him.

 Benefits Covered by Workers’ Company 

 

The objective of Workers” Comp is to cover the costs incurred due to a worker’s job-related injury or illness. Thus, work injury compensation insurance can include immediate expenses such as a ride in an ambulance as well as long-term expenses like lost wages or physical therapy. In fact, it can also take care of your legal expenses when a worker decides to sue you. Here are some of the benefits offered by Workers’ Comp.

Ongoing care

At times a work-related illness or injury can be so severe that the worker needs to have ongoing treatments such as care from specialists, rehabilitation costs, and surgery and so on. Although that worker may not join work again, your company should be responsible for the expenses towards their care. However, you need not worry as there are several Workers’ Comp insurance policies that cover these expenses.

Medical expenses for treatment of immediate illnesses and injuries

Your business should take all possible steps to prevent illnesses and injuries in the workplace. However, still one just cannot prevent the occurrences of accidents altogether.  For instance, a newly recruited employee slips all of a sudden and fractures his arm. Of an employee sustains injuries while on a job and requires medical attention, his employer usually is or can be responsible for meeting the expenses. So, what will Workman’s Comp cover? The policy may pay for medical bills, ambulance rides and visits to an emergency room in this particular instances.

Missed wages

What will happen when one of your workers met an accident and is disabled for a while? A majority of the laws will need you to pay a part of his missed wages as he recovers. Now this means not only paying to the disabled worker for weeks but also searching, paying and training a temporary worker taken as a replacement. In a nutshell, this lost work can actually become a big expense for you as an employer. The good news for you is that Workers’ Comp is able to pay these missed wages and decrease your financial load. The policy may give you an option to pay a fixed lump sum amount or a percentage of the missed wages of the concerned worker. You can get in touch with your insurance broker to recommend what will suit you better.

Death benefits and funeral costs

In case a work-related tragedy culminates in the death of an employee, the insurance policy can provide funds to meet the funeral expenses. There are some insurance policies that also cover death benefits like providing support payments to the dependents of the deceased employee.

 

What Are The Types Of Marine Cargo Insurance

On a general note, Marine cargo insurance is divided into two aspects- Inland Marine Insurance and Ocean Marine Insurance. All risks that may occur on land, which accounts from the time the seller dispatches the goods from his warehouse of the factory to the point of boarding the product onto the ship and from unloading the cargo to the buyer’s warehouse or factory are covered by inland marine insurance. All risks that may occur during the transportation by sea are covered by ocean marine insurance. Apart from these general insurance policies, there are a few more variations in insurance that the insured can choose from.

1) A policy where the cargo is insured only from the port of the seller (the departure point) to the port of the buyer (the destination point) is called a voyage policy. The risk coverage is only for the sea transportation.

2) When a voyage is expected to take a long time to reach its destination a time policy can be issued. This is best suited for full insurance. A number of voyages can also be covered in this type of insurance. The time permitted is based on the policies of the government of that country.

3) A policy where the value of the policy is decided during the time when the contract is drafted is called valued policy. Here the ship is also insured. Freight and incidental expenses are covered by this policy. The agreed amount is paid in the case of losses. The dispute over the value of compensation does not arise.

4) On the contrary, when the policy is not valued at the time of contract is called unvalued policy. The compensation is calculated at the time losses are incurred.

5) When a specific geographical path by sea is used by a ship for transporting goods, instead of purchasing insurance regularly, a floating policy can be taken. It reduces on time and formalities. The value of goods need not be mentioned while purchasing the policy but when the goods are ready to be dispatched a declaration is to be made. A deduction from the lump sum amount is made based on the value of the goods dispatched for each cargo trade.

6) In the case of use of rail or road transportation before or after the marine transportation, a block policy can be purchased to cover all the modes of transportation used.

7) The underwriter involved in the policy may be more than 1. The obligation of the underwriters is well-established in the policy. This is a composite policy.

8) When only one ship is insured it is called a single vessel policy. When all or a few ships are insured under one policy it is called a fleet policy.

Each business is different from the other even if it belongs to the same sector. Similarly, every tradesman conducts his trade in his own unique way. The policy must cater to the needs of every person who wants to insure his goods or merchandise. As customer satisfaction is the main objective of any ethical businessman, customer satisfaction is expected by him from the insurance company when he chooses to insure his products.

The Difference Between Errors And Omissions And Professional Indemnity

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PI Insurance provides protection for losses incurred due to mistakes that are made on the part of the businessman or company (the insured). Terms like Professional liability insurance and errors and omissions insurance are often used as substitutes for professional indemnity insurance. But errors and omissions insurance is a small part of a much bigger policy which is the professional indemnity insurance. The differences are as follows:

1) In the framework of the insurance policy, professional indemnity insurance is the umbrella that covers all the risk factors under its policy. Several types of insurance fall under this framework. Errors and omissions is one such aspect covered under the framework.

2) Mistakes made by the employees (errors) and processes or work neglected (omissions) are under errors and omissions. Situations involving discrimination or sexual harassment are covered by Professional indemnity insurance . The company can tailor the policy as per their requirement which better suits their needs. Specific clauses can be added. These can be enjoyed if the policy is taken through trade associations or other professional groups.

3) Decades ago, when old guidelines governed the insurance policies, professional occupations like lawyers and doctors were insured under the professional indemnity, whereas the semi-professional occupations were covered by errors and omissions.

4) Professional indemnity insurance in Singapore deals with losses incurred by intellectual damages.

Jobs dealing with giving recommendations, advice, generating products to the customers, will require coverage under such insurance policies. In the case of errors and omissions, these are losses incurred due to physical damages.

5) Professional indemnity insurance is most suited for maintenance, construction, engineering services, accounting, transport and financial services. Some non-profit organizations and NGOs also opt for this policy. Errors and omissions cater to the needs of insurance agents, lawyers, brokers, quality control specialists, architects, and consultants. But there is no compulsion in taking only the policy that is generally used in your field.

Professional indemnity and errors and omissions are insurance that protects you from the negative results of your personal mistakes during your career. The legal expensive required in the process of settlement can be huge, bringing the company to ruins. These expenses are covered by the policy. Both policies go hand in hand and many companies prefer taking both policies for better coverage of insurance. Minor loopholes in an individual insurance policy are a possibility. The presence of both policies eradicates loopholes completely, serving the purpose of purchasing such policies in the first place.

Things to consider while purchasing commercial insurance

Very often, the biggest expense for the business owners is to pay the premium for the different kinds of commercial insurance. There is a host of coverage that is available for the entrepreneurs so it is crucial that you do your homework well instead of purchasing the coverage in haste. Some important points that you should consider for purchasing commercial insurance policies are where you should buy your policies, what additional policies are available and what you need to insure.

Insurance policies that a business requires

What coverage is needed depends on the nature of your business that you own. However, there are a few guidelines you should follow. The first point to consider is whether any loans or contracts you have taken from vendors, governments or banks need you to purchase some specific kinds of insurance. Check out some such examples below:

Workers Compensation

It is needed by a majority of state governments so that your employees can be protected in case they succumb to injuries while working for you. This coverage is typically needed when your number of employees exceeds a particular limit.

General Liability

This coverage is often needed by those vendors for whom certain work us being done by your business and at times by the government of your state if they injure someone or may damage your property due to the aftermath of your work.

Commercial auto insurance

Commercial vehicle insurance Singapore and in other countries is needed by many governments for all those businesses that use commercial vehicles.

Property insurance

This coverage is typically needed by banks that own your mortgage. However, it can be also needed by your landlord in case a commercial space has been taken on rent by you.

Commercial Umbrella or Excess Liability

These policies may be needed by those vendors for whom you do some work to cover bigger losses, which could exceed some of the underlying policies purchased by you.

Additional coverage to consider for your business

After you have got a hang of what kind of commercial insurance your business needs, you can find out if your business can be benefited from any extra coverage or not. Some of them include Employment Practices Liability, Professional Liability, and Directors & Officers Liability

Top Myths Related To Commercial Auto Insurance

Commercial vehicle insurance is a policy that takes care of a commercial vehicle’s liability, physical damage and any other optional coverage so that a business can be safeguarded from any type of loss while a vehicle is being operated while conducting a business. While a personal auto policy may look similar to commercial auto policy, there are many differences between the two of them. So, it is crucial for the entrepreneurs to appreciate the difference between the two.

It is a different story altogether as far as the issue of hired or a rented vehicle is concerned. However, when your business owns one or many vehicles that are being used for business purpose, you require auto insurance singapore . A commercial auto policy is also needed when the employees are using their own cars for conducting business. So, there is a very thin line between the two.

There are various myths that surround commercial auto insurance. Some of them are as follows.

Myth 1: If a businessman runs a seasonal business, commercial auto policy is not needed while the business is not operating

The truth of the matter is even though there is a temporary downtime; you should not cancel your commercial vehicle policy. There are two major reasons for it. Firstly, when you do not cancel your commercial policy, you will have to pay a lower premium as compared to the situation when you cancel your policy and then again begin later on. Secondly, once you cancel the policy, your stored vehicles will not enjoy any insurance coverage. Thus it is good to go for a comprehensive-only coverage while there is downtime so that your business vehicles will still be protected against fire, vandalism or theft.

MYTH 2: In case an entrepreneur makes deliveries, his or her personal vehicle will safeguard the personal vehicle

Your personal vehicle insurance policy can only protect you when you are driving to commute to and fro from office or for leisure. But it will not provide protection for your vehicle in case you are self-employed and use your personal car for the sake of business. In case your vehicle meets an accident while delivering some products of your business, your claim can be denied by your personal insurer. So, you require a commercial insurance coverage for these types of claims.

It is crucial to understand the various aspects of your commercial vehicle policy, so contact your agent to ensure.

What Is Indemnity Insurance

Professional indemnity insurance is designed to protect the insured against calamities or harm that may occur due to the mistakes made on the part of the insured. The errors in judgment that incur monetary losses or cause mishaps are covered by this insurance.

Other terms used for Professional indemnity insurance are professional liability insurance, errors and omissions insurance. But errors and omissions insurance in its true sense is just a part of the entire insurance policy. Malpractice insurance is another contract that comes under PI.

The difference in the term is mostly because of the sector of business or the people they are likely to serve insurance to. For example, medical professionals like doctors, therapists and surgeons are more likely to obtain the malpractice insurance. Malpractice insurance is usually for tangible things. Mistakes or negligence would come under errors and omissions which are usually for insurance agents, lawyers, and consultants who need to be covered by such a policy. Intangible things like data are covered by this insurance.

A lawsuit can be filed by a client who has suffered a loss. Since the company is already insured; the cost of defending against the claim of settlement is taken care of by the insurance.

The reason professional indemnity insurance is necessary for businesses is to protect the insured from mistakes and mishaps that can take place while handling information about a client or business, guiding or advising a client, professional services rendered which do not meet the expectations of the client.

This insurance provides coverage which is very important for new businessmen who are learning the ways of the trade. Losing monetary support in the beginning of the business is a discouraging factor that will lead to working within a comfort zone. Taking up challenges and overcoming obstacles will not be on the fresher’s agenda due to fear of failure. Professional negligence, loss of documents, loss of data, unintentional breach of confidentially or copyright, loss of goods, monetary losses, and cost of claim investigation are covered by the insurance.

Foul play is not encouraged and a thorough investigation is conducted before compensating the insured. The insured cannot get away with malpractices like intentional damages, insolvency or bankruptcy of the insured, situations and claims that occurred before the policy was issued, or an act of terrorism.

In the long run, this insurance has proved to be an asset for many multinational companies where such accidents are seen often.

Does My Company Need Public Liability Insurance

The many available business insurances work by offering protection to the business owner, the employees and the business, as a whole. For anyone who has just embarked on the path of setting up a business, choosing the right business insurance can be a confusing task. Business insurance can be classified into two depending on their necessity: Mandatory business insurance and optional insurance.

Public liability Insurance (PIL) is a type of optional insurance which offers protection against an injury incurred to a member of the public or their property in the business premises. The protection also extends to the client site and in public domains, where you work.

Who Needs Public Liability Insurance?

In general, since Public liability Insurance Singapore is optional, there are two scenarios which demand the need of PIL:

1.Companies Which are at High Risk of Exposure

These companies witness high rate of footfall every day. Such businesses include cafes, salons, builders, shops and related establishments. A hairdresser can be sued when a client receives a second degree burn with hot wax. If there is a lawsuit filed under these circumstances and the business lacks public liability insurance, the damages caused can cripple the profits. Similarly, in a cafe, a customer can slip and hurt themselves. As the damage is inflicted in the client’s property, compensation is their responsibility. If you’re lucky, compensation will be a meager sum, but in most cases, it runs up to millions of SGD. Insurance companies offer PLI starting from 1 Million SGD coverage. You can choose for a higher coverage depending on the scale of the business.

2.Clients Who Demand For a Proof of Cover

In few cases, there are client who ask for proof of cover before negotiating the terms of the business allegiance. Contracts with the government or public’s involvement generally require a PIL.

PIL can be a life saver even in the situation of a private party. Public liability insurance Singapore can save your business from shelling out payments for medical mills, compensation claims and legal fees if an individual suffers from injury at your party. If the venue is at a famous tourist site, PIL will additionally cover damages caused to the venue. To help decide the amount of coverage your business requires, get in touch with a professional.

The Role of Performance Bonds in Construction Projects

In Singapore, performance bonds are a requirement in construction projects. Performance bonds protect project owners from monetary loss due to incomplete or failed projects where the contractor is at fault. They are usually provided by insurance companies or banks and applied for by contractors (in favour of the project owner) who need to furnish them as part of their bid for a project. The security provided by performance bonds need not only be for the completion of a project but also in other situations like securing advance payments to the contractor or the tender security deposit submitted at the time of the tender. However, performance bonds are mostly used to secure the performance of the contractor’s work on the project.

Types of Performance Bonds

There are broadly two types of performance bonds – €conditional€™ and on demand€™(or unconditional).

1) Conditional performance bond – in this case, the insurer is required to pay only if the contractor defaults on the underlying construction contract.

2) On demand or unconditional performance bond – the insurer is required to pay the amount specified in the bond without having to prove that the contractor’s breach of obligations as per the underlying construction contract. The insurer can only refuse to pay if the claim made is fraudulent.

Uses of performance bonds

Performance bonds are most widely used in construction and development projects. Project owners require contractors to be accountable for the quality of work that they do, so performance bonds ensure that contractors deliver on what they promised under the contractual agreement. Performance bonds are provided by insurance companies or banks to a contractor in favour of the project owner. In case a contractor fails to deliver on contractual agreements, be in in terms of quality of work, budget or deadlines, a performance bond ensures that the project can carry on and be completed. When a contractor defaults, the insurer pays out an agreed sum of money to the project owner or arranges for a new contractor while covering all the expenses for that. The insurer will then recover their expenses from the contractor who defaulted since the performance bond was issued to that contractor. Performance bonds are widely used because project owners want to secure the completion of their project(s) without having to incur any additional costs due to failure of the contractor to fulfil their obligations under contract.